Chemistry Unit Objectives

Chemistry Objectives

Unit 1 – Intro to Chemistry

  1. Perform metric conversions.
  2. Know the metric prefixes: k, c, m, µ, and their meanings.
  3. Know the 3 common states of matter and the changes between them.
  4. Differentiate between physical and chemical changes.
  5. Be able to do density calculations.
  6. Know the classes of matter.
  7. Know the difference between endothermic and exothermic processes.
  8. Use sig figs.
  9. Use scientific notation.

 

Unit 2 – Atoms, Moles, Periodic Table

  1. Understand the basic atomic structure.
  2. Relate the concepts: mass number, atomic number, isotope, and atomic mass.
  3. Calculate the average atomic mass from given data.
  4. Give the electron configuration of any element (fully written out and shorthand).
  5. Convert between moles, grams, and number of atoms.
  6. Understand how quantum numbers describe electrons.
  7. Predict the number of valence electrons for any s or p block element, and understand how that determines stability.
  8. Know where each of these are in the periodic table:
  • blocks (s, p, d, f)
  • periods and groups/families
  • Alkali metals
  • Alkaline-Earth metals
  • Halogens
  • Noble gases
  • Transition metals
  • Lanthanide and Actinide series
  1. Explain why each of the following periodic trends changes as it does:
  • Ionization energy
  • Electronegativity
  • Atomic radius
  1. Know the contributions of Mendeleev, Moseley, Thomson, and Rutherford.

 

Unit 3 – Compounds

  1. Determine the charge of an ion from any Group 1, 2, 13, 16, or 17 element
  2. Compare molecular shapes to ionic compound shapes.
  3. Compare ionic and covalent compounds in terms of: electron involvement, bond strength, conductivity in solution, boiling point, and melting point.
  4. Name any ionic compound.
  5. Know the formula and charge of all polyatomic ions discussed in class.
  6. Write the formula for any ionic compound.
  7. Use electronegativity to determine bond character.
  8. Draw Lewis structures for covalent compounds and polyatomic ions.
  9. Draw resonance structures of covalent compounds predicted by Lewis structures.
  10. Name and write formulas for covalent compounds.
  11. Apply VSEPR Theory to covalent compounds to predict shape.

 

Unit 4 – Moles and Chemical Reactions

  1. Perform mole conversions in any direction.
  2. Calculate empirical formulas from % comp data.
  3. Give pieces of evidence of a chemical change.
  4. Differentiate between different types of chemical reactions.
  5. Balance chemical equations.
  6. Use the activity series and solubility rules to predict products given the reactants.
  7. Write total and net ionic equations.

 

Unit 5 – Stoichiometry

  1. Be able to convert between moles, mass, volume of liquid, and volume of gas at STP
  2. Determine limiting reagents and excess reagents
  3. Balance equations
  4. Predict products using solubility rules
  5. Understand how to use molarity in stoichiometry problems
  6. WORK STOICHIOMETRY PROBLEMS
  7. Calculate % yield

 

Unit 6 – Energy in Reactions

  1. Know what each variable represents and the associated units
  • H
  • DH
  • n
  • C
  • DT
  • DH0f
  1. Calculate the enthalpy change of a substance when heated or cooled
  2. Calculate the enthalpy change associated with a chemical equation
  3. Use standard enthalpies of formation
  4. Answer questions associated with the molar heat capacity lab

 

Unit 7 – Gases

  1. Be able to convert between pressure units.
  2. Know STP conditions.
  3. Know which variables are related and how for each gas law:

Boyle’s

Charles’s

Gay-Lussac’s

Avogadro’s

Ideal

  1. Work gas stoichiometry problems.
  2. Be able to answer questions pertaining to our labs.

 

Unit 8 – Solutions

  1. Understand how polarity is linked to solubility.
  2. Calculate concentration in ppm.
  3. Calculate molarity and use it to solve problems.
  4. Do solution stoichiometry problems.
  5. Understand what a supersaturated solution is.
  6. Understand colligative properties and predict the impact of various amounts of solute on colligative properties.
  7. Know the two types of surfactants discussed and how they differ chemically.

 

Unit 9 – Acids and Bases

  1. Understand what makes a substance an Arrhenius acid or base.
  2. Understand what makes a substance a Bronsted-Lowry acid or base.
  3. Know the formulas for the list of acids and bases given in class.
  4. Know general properties of acids and bases.
  5. Determine the conjugate acid or base for a given reactant.
  6. Differentiate between strong acids/bases and weak acids/bases.
  7. Understand the self-ionization of H2O and its meaning on Kw.
  8. Understand how to do a titration and calculate the concentration of a strong acid or base.
  9. Calculate pH.
  10. Calculate[H3O+] and [OH-].
  11. Predict the products of a neutralization reaction.

 

Unit 10 – Organic

  1. Differentiate between alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes.
  2. Name alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes (including branched).
  3. Know the structure of each functional group:
  • alcohols
  • halides
  • ethers
  • ketones
  • aldehydes
  • esters
  • carboxylic acids
  1. Name compounds containing functional groups.
  2. Draw structural and skeletal diagrams for any organic compound.
  3. Understand the structure of benzene, phenol, and cycloalkanes.
  4. Predict the products of an esterification reaction.