Biology Unit Objectives

Biology Unit Objectives

Unit 1 – Introduction to Biology

  1. List the steps of the scientific method in order.
  2. Know the difference between independent and dependent variables.
  3. Know vocabulary terms from the notes.
  4. Differentiate between the 3 main parts of an atom.
  5. Compare and contrast the four classes of carbon compounds.
  6. Know the structure of each class of carbon compound.
  7. Draw and label a pH scale.
  8. Understand the Organic Molecule Lab.


Unit 2 – Ecology

  1. Understand what biotic and abiotic factors are and provide examples of each.
  2. Interpret food webs.
  3. Label trophic levels.
  4. Differentiate between types of consumers.
  5. Understand how # of individuals and energy is related to trophic level.
  6. Diagram and explain all the steps of the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles.
  7. Understand succession (primary and secondary).
  8. Know what climax communities and pioneer organisms are.
  9. Describe the 3 types of symbiosis and provide examples of each.
  10. Know how temperature and precipitation determine biomes.


Unit 3 – Cells

  1. Know the functions of each of the following cellular structures: plasma membrane, nucleus, nucleolus, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, chloroplasts, cell wall, flagellum, cilia, cytoskeleton.
  2. Know the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and examples of each.
  3. Draw and label the structure of the plasma membrane
  4. Know what happens during active transport mechanisms (active transport) and passive transport mechanisms (diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion).
  5. Differentiate between active transport and diffusion.
  6. Know how a cell would respond in each of the following environments: hypotonic solution, hypertonic solution, isotonic solution.


Unit 4 – Cellular Energy

  1. Know the major steps to each of the following energy reactions including what they start and end with: light dependent, Calvin cycle, glycolysis, Krebs cycle, ETC, lactic acid fermentation, alcoholic fermentation.
  2. Know where each energy reaction takes place.
  3. Compare energy reactions in terms of amount of ATP produced.
  4. Explain the ADP – ATP recharge cycle.
  5. Know which processes are aerobic and which are anaerobic.
  6. Know which reactions are a part of photosynthesis and which are a part of cellular respiration.
  7. Understand why fermentation would occur.


Unit 5 – Cell Reproduction

  1. Diagram and label the stages of mitosis in order.
  2. Know the three parts of interphase and what occurs during each.
  3. Differentiate between Mitosis and Meiosis.
  4. Understand the difference between haploid and diploid cells and know what processes produce each.
  5. Understand which types of stem cells hold the most potential and why.
  6. Define vocabulary terms from this unit.


Unit 6 – Genetics

  1. Know all vocabulary terms from Mendelian genetics and complex inheritance notes.
  2. Understand how each complex inheritance pattern differs from simple inheritance and know examples of each.
  3. Know what genetic recombination is and how it can be achieved.
  4. Set up and complete a punnet square for a monohybrid cross and a dihybrid cross.
  5. Set up and complete a punnet square for a sex-linked or multiple allele trait.
  6. Interpret pedigrees of any inheritance pattern.


Unit 7 – DNA

  1. Know vocabulary terms from this unit.
  2. Draw and label the DNA structure.
  3. Know the differences between DNA and RNA.
  4. Explain in detail all the steps of transcription and translation.
  5. Understand the difference between point and frameshift mutations.
  6. Transcribe and translate a section of DNA.
  7. Understand the parts of a tRNA molecule and how it works
  8. Know which nitrogenous bases are purines and pyrimidines.
  9. Describe the process of DNA replication and compare to transcription.


Unit 8 – Evolution

  1. List all the periods of Geologic Time in order for each Era.
  2. Know when each of these events occurred:
    1. Formation of Earth
    2. First life
    3. Start of the Paleozoic Era
    4. Start of the Mesozoic Era
    5. Start of the Cenozoic Era
  3. Know the major groups of dominant life during each Era.
  4. Understand under what conditions fossils form.
  5. Explain the significance of the K-T extinction.
  6. Understand how radiometric dating works and how half-lives can be used to determine age.
  7. Compare Spontaneous Generation to Biogenesis and the associated experiments.
  8. Explain the Miller-Urey experiments including their results.
  9. Explain endosymbiont theory and give evidence that supports it.
  10. Know the basics of Darwin: What ship was he on? Where did he go?  What book did he write that explains how evolution works?
  11. Know the 4 principles of natural selection.
  12. Explain how natural selection works on a population.


Unit 9 – Classification

  1. Compare and contrast analogous structures, homologous structures, and vestigial structures and know examples of each.
  2. Know the 8 levels of classification in order and understand their usage.
  3. Know the complete classification of a human.
  4. Know the parts of a scientific name.
  5. Be able to interpret a cladogram.
  6. Know the three domains and 6 kingdoms of life and characteristics of each.
  7. Be able to use a dichotomous key.


Unit 10 – Viruses and Bacteria

  1. Describe the composition of a virus and what they can and cannot do.
  2. Diagram the lytic and lysogenic cycles, and know examples of each.
  3. Understand how retroviruses differ from other viruses.
  4. Know the major parts of a bacterium.
  5. Identify bacteria in terms of shape and growth pattern.
  6. Contrast binary fission with conjugation.
  7. Explain why bacteria are important to us.


Unit 11 – Human Body

  1. Know all the bones presented in class.
  2. Know all the muscles presented in class.
  3. Know the parts of the brain and their functions.
  4. Know the parts of the heart and how blood flows through it.
  5. Know the parts of the respiratory system and their functions.
  6. Know the parts of the digestive system and their functions.
  7. Know the parts of the male and female reproductive systems and their functions.


Unit 12 – Animals

  1. For each phylum know the following:
    1. Protostome or deuterostome
    2. Body cavity
    3. Symmetry
    4. Unique features
  1. Compare phyla in terms of feeding, reproduction, and skeletal systems.