Biology Unit Objectives
Unit 1 – Introduction to Biology
- List the steps of the scientific method in order.
- Know the difference between independent and dependent variables.
- Know vocabulary terms from the notes.
- Differentiate between the 3 main parts of an atom.
- Compare and contrast the four classes of carbon compounds.
- Know the structure of each class of carbon compound.
- Draw and label a pH scale.
- Understand the Organic Molecule Lab.
Unit 2 – Ecology
- Understand what biotic and abiotic factors are and provide examples of each.
- Interpret food webs.
- Label trophic levels.
- Differentiate between types of consumers.
- Understand how # of individuals and energy is related to trophic level.
- Diagram and explain all the steps of the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles.
- Understand succession (primary and secondary).
- Know what climax communities and pioneer organisms are.
- Describe the 3 types of symbiosis and provide examples of each.
- Know how temperature and precipitation determine biomes.
Unit 3 – Cells
- Know the functions of each of the following cellular structures: plasma membrane, nucleus, nucleolus, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, chloroplasts, cell wall, flagellum, cilia, cytoskeleton.
- Know the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and examples of each.
- Draw and label the structure of the plasma membrane
- Know what happens during active transport mechanisms (active transport) and passive transport mechanisms (diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion).
- Differentiate between active transport and diffusion.
- Know how a cell would respond in each of the following environments: hypotonic solution, hypertonic solution, isotonic solution.
Unit 4 – Cellular Energy
- Know the major steps to each of the following energy reactions including what they start and end with: light dependent, Calvin cycle, glycolysis, Krebs cycle, ETC, lactic acid fermentation, alcoholic fermentation.
- Know where each energy reaction takes place.
- Compare energy reactions in terms of amount of ATP produced.
- Explain the ADP – ATP recharge cycle.
- Know which processes are aerobic and which are anaerobic.
- Know which reactions are a part of photosynthesis and which are a part of cellular respiration.
- Understand why fermentation would occur.
Unit 5 – Cell Reproduction
- Diagram and label the stages of mitosis in order.
- Know the three parts of interphase and what occurs during each.
- Differentiate between Mitosis and Meiosis.
- Understand the difference between haploid and diploid cells and know what processes produce each.
- Understand which types of stem cells hold the most potential and why.
- Define vocabulary terms from this unit.
Unit 6 – Genetics
- Know all vocabulary terms from Mendelian genetics and complex inheritance notes.
- Understand how each complex inheritance pattern differs from simple inheritance and know examples of each.
- Know what genetic recombination is and how it can be achieved.
- Set up and complete a punnet square for a monohybrid cross and a dihybrid cross.
- Set up and complete a punnet square for a sex-linked or multiple allele trait.
- Interpret pedigrees of any inheritance pattern.
Unit 7 – DNA
- Know vocabulary terms from this unit.
- Draw and label the DNA structure.
- Know the differences between DNA and RNA.
- Explain in detail all the steps of transcription and translation.
- Understand the difference between point and frameshift mutations.
- Transcribe and translate a section of DNA.
- Understand the parts of a tRNA molecule and how it works
- Know which nitrogenous bases are purines and pyrimidines.
- Describe the process of DNA replication and compare to transcription.
Unit 8 – Evolution
- List all the periods of Geologic Time in order for each Era.
- Know when each of these events occurred:
- Formation of Earth
- First life
- Start of the Paleozoic Era
- Start of the Mesozoic Era
- Start of the Cenozoic Era
- Know the major groups of dominant life during each Era.
- Understand under what conditions fossils form.
- Explain the significance of the K-T extinction.
- Understand how radiometric dating works and how half-lives can be used to determine age.
- Compare Spontaneous Generation to Biogenesis and the associated experiments.
- Explain the Miller-Urey experiments including their results.
- Explain endosymbiont theory and give evidence that supports it.
- Know the basics of Darwin: What ship was he on? Where did he go? What book did he write that explains how evolution works?
- Know the 4 principles of natural selection.
- Explain how natural selection works on a population.
Unit 9 – Classification
- Compare and contrast analogous structures, homologous structures, and vestigial structures and know examples of each.
- Know the 8 levels of classification in order and understand their usage.
- Know the complete classification of a human.
- Know the parts of a scientific name.
- Be able to interpret a cladogram.
- Know the three domains and 6 kingdoms of life and characteristics of each.
- Be able to use a dichotomous key.
Unit 10 – Viruses and Bacteria
- Describe the composition of a virus and what they can and cannot do.
- Diagram the lytic and lysogenic cycles, and know examples of each.
- Understand how retroviruses differ from other viruses.
- Know the major parts of a bacterium.
- Identify bacteria in terms of shape and growth pattern.
- Contrast binary fission with conjugation.
- Explain why bacteria are important to us.
Unit 11 – Human Body
- Know all the bones presented in class.
- Know all the muscles presented in class.
- Know the parts of the brain and their functions.
- Know the parts of the heart and how blood flows through it.
- Know the parts of the respiratory system and their functions.
- Know the parts of the digestive system and their functions.
- Know the parts of the male and female reproductive systems and their functions.
Unit 12 – Animals
- For each phylum know the following:
- Protostome or deuterostome
- Body cavity
- Unique features
- Compare phyla in terms of feeding, reproduction, and skeletal systems.